An Internet WebQuest on PROTEST MUSIC

created by Ralph A. Bucci
Charles W. Flanagan High School

Webdesign by James Richard


Introduction | The Task | The Process | Conclusion |

In harmony with the First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of speech, music has long been an expression of faith, freedom, peace and justice. Throughout American history, songs have cried out against inequality, poverty, war, support of workers, civil and human rights. The catalog of protest music is vast. This sampler highlights some of the American songs and songwriters whose words and music served as catalysts for thought, action and even social change.

Educators will find this WebQuest to be arranged as a true reading lesson. The questions formulated for each song and artist are arranged by Before, During, and After reading queries. These essential questions range from Before Reading questions to build background information and frontload the lesson to higher-ordered questions for the During Reading section to understand the meaning of the lyrics to provoke thought during the lesson and then the After Reading questions are used to clarify the meaning for the Socratic discussions.

Educators are urged to preview material before presenting to a class. Because of the sometimes coarse language and sensitive subject matter, discretion is encouraged as to the presentation of this material.

A special thanks is in order to the many School Board of Broward County educators that were surveyed and offered suggestions for this WebQuest. Their recommendations for protest songs happened to also include cause songs. Songs recorded to promote causes by such artists as Bruce Springsteen, U2, R.E.M., Kate Bush, Green Day, Robert Cray, Rory Gallagher, to name a few, had to be differentiated from the list as they did not qualify as true protest songs. That becomes the material for a whole new WebQuest.

It is nearly impossible to create over 600 essential questions not to mention the 'juke box' that powers the media section without the assistance of other qualified participants. All of the technical support for the media is supplied by Jimmy Richard, my English 4 Honors tech guru, and 'flower power' was supplied by fellow classmates Kayla Martinez and Jessica Monteagudo who supplied many of the essential questions in the process section.

Enjoy the compendium of songs that define (y)our age.


Your team has been assigned a specific role. You will use the links provided as well as other resources (library, etc) to become experts on your roles. You and your team will work together to create a Group Report that presents your team's answer to the Quest(ion). By completing this WebQuest, you should achieve the following goals: 1) develop an interest in the study of PROTEST MUSIC; 2) use the power of the Internet for advanced exploration; 3) learn information about key aspects of PROTEST MUSIC; 4) realize that complex topics can be looked at from various perspectives; 5) formulate and support an opinion based on your roles; and 6) work with teammates to determine a combined action plan.

1) The Protest Music Sampler can be used in three content areas. It is applicable for social studies because the content deals with history. It works in the language arts classroom because the lyrics relate to poetry and writing. It certainly is related to music for the obvious reasons.

2) Any educator using this WebQuest must first consider the group dynamics in order to have a successful activity. First, divide the class equally among the six time frames (pre 60’s, 60’s, 70’s, 80’s, 90’s, and the 21st century. With a class of thirty students that means five per group. Consideration should be given to ESE, ESOL, and varying degrees of competency levels of each student.

3) Once that is accomplished, the teacher then will decide which group will work each time era. The teacher then can present the overview by reviewing the nine essential questions. Three have been formulated as a before reading strategy. These knowledge and comprehension questions are designed to activate prior knowledge and front-load the understanding of each artist by providing biographical information. The three during reading questions examine the lyrics. Generally, they focus on the meaning as it applies to the protest specifically. A video has been prepared for each so this becomes an interactive activity. The final three questions complete the after reading activity by challenging students to analyze and synthesize the meaning and determine why each song presents a protest. These questions tend to be higher ordered questions on Bloom’s Taxonomy.

4) It is suggested that each group be given 90 minutes to 120 minutes to complete the questions for each artist/song by time era. This insures that each group has been given ample time to discuss and reach consensus.

5) The teacher then should review the rubric contained in the assessment section of this lesson plan. It calls for a Powerpoint presentation so that the entire class can become involved in the bigger picture. Students realize the place their era had in the overall picture of protest music. It is suggested that teachers allow 90 minutes to 120 minutes to prepare the slides.

6) The final class period is designed for presentations. Beginning with pre 60’s and continuing to the 21st century allows students to see the evolution of protest music and the nature and subject matter that each era was faced with.

7) Upon conclusion of the presentations, A Socratic discussion is a good way to bring closure to the activity. When my English 4 Honors class concluded this lesson, they were able to vote on the top ten protest songs. A spokesperson for each era nominated two songs, discussed the merits of each, and then the class voted. I was blown away by the passion that each group projected. In the final analysis, I found this to be a great way to make a real-world connection. TRY IT!

Phase 1 - Background Information
These sites are important because they will provide basic information about the topic as a whole. Everyone should explore these sites before starting your Task.

Phase 2 - Roles
These roles were chosen because they each define the most important elements of PROTEST MUSIC. Each of you has been assigned a particular role with links and instructions below. Here are the general instructions for all of you. Please see your specific instructions and questions below.


1. Two members from each WebQuest team will explore one of the roles below.

2. Read through the files designated for your group. You can print out pages and underline the parts that you feel are important or cut and paste from the webpage into a word processor.

3. Remember to include the URL of the page you take information from so you can return to it and use it as a citation.

4. Focus what you've learned into one main opinion that answers the Big Quest(ion) or Task.

PROTEST MUSIC OF THE 21st CENTURY: 9/11 and The Iraq War:

Use these links to answer the following questions.

1. How did Rovic's parents' interest in classical music and political views evolve into his style of music?
2. If Rovics had grown up away from poverty and pollution, do you believe he'd have the same message in his music today? Why or why not?
3. We are all affected by death. Explain how the death of Eric, a close friend of his, changed Rovic's view of dealing with life.

1. Why did Rovics choose to perform at college campuses when he'd been to international conferences?
2. Describe how Rovics sees music other than being an escape.
3. Why did Rovics choose music as the focal point of his protest instead of speeches and picket signs?

1. How is 'Hang a Flag in the Window' a song of social significance?
2. What line(s) from the chorus have the most impact on you? Why?
3. Cite specific lines from the song that detail terrorism.

1. How is Incubus classified as an alternative rock band?
2. What success has S.C.I.E.N.C.E. had for the group?
3. What is their best musical effort in terms of sales?

1. What theme do you think Incubus was trying to give in 'Light Grenades'?
2. Read the chorus of the song 'Rogues'. What do you think Boyd means when he sings “the ripple effect is too good not to mention. If you’re not affected then you’re not paying attention”?
3. In the first verse of the song, what type of action do you think Boyd wants the world to take concerning politics?

1. On this album the band prefers to do shows in smaller venues to reconnect with the audience. Do you think this is an effective way for the audience to grasp their message?
2. Even though the band doesn’t feel the need to have large record sales or performances in arenas, why do you think they continue to have world tours?
3. Give the band’s view on the “I Dig Incubus” contest and your own.

1. What change in musical direction did John Mayer take that led to his success as a singer-songwriter?
2. What other projects keep Mayer busy?
3. What touring success does Mayer have?

1. What lyrics describe the theme of discontent and hope?
2. The song's theme of discontent in world conditions, but optimism for future change, are reflected in what lines from the song?
3. What lines from the song create the best imagery?

1. The music video for the song was directed by Philip Andelman and features Mayer walking along the East River while commissioned graffiti artists Futura, Tats Cru, and Daze spray paint messages relating to the song's content on New York City billboards. What effect does this have as it relates to the message?
2. The New York Times called the song 'a lovely and anger-free ode to a vaguely dissatisfied generation,' Why would they say this?
3. 'Waiting on the World to Change' was also featured on several competition shows. Why do you think they chose this song?

1. How did 'open mic' night get John Prine started in his musical career?
2. What are some of Prine's better known hits?
3. How did moving to Nashville change Prine's career for the good?

1. What is the line 'There's a hole in daddy's arm, where all the money goes' a reference to?
2. What is the theme of this song?
3. What other lines from the song speak of this drug addicted veteran?

1. Political lyrics tend to cause a controversy in the media, and can sometimes make an artist infamous. Why do you think Prine was positively praised even though his music spoke only of anti-war acts?
2. Why do you think Prine needed time off from major record labels to “rethink” what he was doing?
3. Do you think Prine would have been as successful if he had continued to work with other record companies instead of doing it himself? Why?

1. What was the name of Neil Young's first band? Who was in it?
2. What was Young first composing music for?
3. What caused Young's loss of a secure deal he had with Motown Records?

1. Watch the video and describe the effect the trumpet has at the beginning of the song.
2. What are the various reasons to impeach the current president of the United States George W. Bush?
3. What lines from the song are a direct protest of the President's failures?

1. The song features sound clips from the president's speeches. What effect does this have?
2. Why is this song popular today?
3. The song is sung to the tune of Steve Goodman's song 'The City of New Orleans.' Why do you think Neil Young chose this tune?

1. Which influential person helped Patti Smith achieve her dreams? How?
2. Other than song lyrics, what does Smith also write?
3. Who did Smith collaborate with in her early career?

1. What were Patti Smith's opening words described as?
2. What was Smith an active supporter of?
3. What were Smith's two new protest songs released in 2006 about?

1. What songs do Patti Smith still perform in concert?
2. Into what Hall of Fame was Smith inducted to? When?
3. Which classic Rolling Stones tune did Smith like to perform due to the anti-war message?

1. What was Pearl Jam's original name?
2. What three reasons were given for naming the band 'Pearl Jam'?
3. What kind of music influenced Pearl Jam?

1. Pearl Jam was first categorized as being a corporate cash-in. What did they refuse to do that changed peoples' minds about them being like every other alternative rock band?
2. What other bands were alongside Pearl Jam in the Seattle grunge explosion in the 90's?
3. After cancelling their shoes due to Ticketmaster contracts, what decision did Pearl Jam make concerning their albums and their favorite 60's band, The Who?

1. Pearl Jam has left a legacy to alternative rock bands. Which bands have they influenced?
2. How did the battle with Ticketmasters help the band with their popularity?
3. Why do you think critics consider the band a different genre today form their post grunge days?

1. Why is Pink America's most controversial and innovative popular artist?
2. What directors chose Pink to star in their movie?
3. Why do the people that Pink surrounds herself with relate to her music?

1. If Pink felt the need to speak her mind through her music, why do you think she went to her father for approval?
2. Pink claims that the lyrics to “Dear Mr. President” aren’t ‘flag-waving’, simply just thoughts on her mind. Do you think there should be a limit on musicians questioning the government’s acts? Why?
3. Describe what you think Pink’s message is in the line “You’ve come a long way form your whiskey and cocaine” referring to the presidents past habits.

1. Who is featured in the video?
2. What is the focus of the big screens images in the video?
3. Why do you think Pink chose to do a live video for her song?

PROTEST MUSIC OF THE 1990's: Hard Rock, Women's Rights and Parodies:

Use these links to answer your questions.

1. What are Difranco's musical roots?
2. How has her independent record label enabled her to advance in the music industry?
3. Describe how Difranco's music is categorized.

1. Why do you think Difranco still chose to publish her own songs, produce her own recordings, and create her artwork, even with the responsibility of running a record company?
2. Even though she was considered an overnight success, how do you think Difranco's personality remained modest?
3. How are people affected by Difranco's songs, even at her young age?

1. Do you think people were persuaded by her music to be more involved in the political world? Why or why not?
2. Difranco brings up historical moments in her song 'My Name is Lisa Kavelage.' Why do you think she refers to these issues today?
3. Did Defranco's opinion of our country's government belittle or merely open peoples' minds to our economic problems?

1. Name and describe the five different styles and genres employed by the band.
2. How did the band originate and what influences helped shape the band's music?
3. Discuss the importance of 'The Last Dispatch.'

1. What is 'the duty' that The General speaks of in the lyrics?
2. What message does 'The General' give as a protest son?
3. What are the most emotional lines of 'The General?'

1. What legacy does Dispatch: Zimbabwe leave on the music scene?
2. How did The Elias Fund and The Relief Project help others?
3. What involvement do the three band members have now in the music industry?

1. What types of musical subject matter does Brooks play?
2. How did Brooks' mother and father and what other musical talents help shape Brooks' musical caree?
3. Describe why Brooks' trip to Dublin, Ireland and his concert in New York City's Central Park are so significant.

1. How is 'We Shall Be Free' a song of protest for homophobia?
2. What lines from the song are the most significant as it relates to the theme of homophobia?
3. What religious themes are also mentioned in 'We Shall Be Free'?

1. What types of freedoms are contained in 'We Shall Be Free'?
2. What core democratic values can be attributed to the song?
3. Some have said that 'We Shall Be Free' is a song of Violations and Dreams. Dou you agree? Why/Why not?

1. Review the first five years of the timeline and list in order the top five accomplishments of the band.
2. What concerts in the late 90's were big time events?
3. What distinction did RATM earn in 2007 from Clem Cannel?

1. Who are the renegades in the song?
2. What underlying message is the band displaying when they say “destroy all nations”?
3. How does the solar system and galaxies correlate with the song?

1. Some bands get misunderstood when people don’t fully understand the underlying message in their lyrics. What misunderstanding might people have with this song that could possibly cause controversy?
2. Do you believe the course of history changes daily?
3. Would you consider yourself a renegade? Give an example of a modern day renegade?

1. How did serving in the United States Army influence Phillip's song writing.
2. List five songs that Phillips wrote that directly relate to United States history and what so they relate to?
3. What lasting impression has Phillips made on the folk music community?

1. What colors does Phillips use in 'We Have Fed You All For A Thousand Years' and what do they represent?
2. Who or what is the object of Phillips' protest?
3. Which lines present the best imagery? Why?

1. What might be an alternate title for this song? Defend your answer.
2. What references are made to unions?
3. How is money used by Phillips in the lyrics?

1. Explain the group's logo which is called 'gunstar.'
2. Discuss the criticism the band received as a result of their name.
3. How has Anti-Flag gained support from U.S. government officials for their songs?

1. Why is women spelled 'womyn'?
2. What line from the song is the most powerful? Why?
3. Why are some of the lyrics to 'A New Kind of Army' all in capital letters?

1. According to Anti Flag, what is the 'new army'?
2. What attitude does Anti Flag have towards war?
3. What is the 'TYRANNY' that Anti Flag speaks about?

1. Discuss the formation and early history of Sonic Youth.
2. What is the musical style and influences associated with Sonic Youth.
3. How did the September 11th attacks in New York City impact Sonic Youth?

1. Make a list of the places mentioned, and what do they represent?
2. Who are the names memtioned, and why are there no last names?
3. What are 'icy women'?

1. How is 'Swimsuit Issue' a song of feminist issues?
2. How can 'ice women' be confused with 'us women' or 'I'm swimming'?
3. How are women used as objects in 'Swimsuit Issue'?

PROTEST MUSIC OF THE 1980's: Cold War, Reagan and Rap:

Use these links to answer the following questions.

1. Which of Billy Joel's early albums had the most success?
2. What is Joel's musical style and songwrting, and who are his biggest influences?
3. What are Joels' most notable achievements and awards?

1. What effect does the sound of the blowing of a steam whistle in a factory have on the song?
2. Listen carefully to the song and list all the background noises that relate to a factory.
3. How does Billy Joel use people in 'Allentown'?

1. What lines from the song help you to understand that 'Allentown' is about the recession?
2. What seems to be the future of Allentown? Provide evidence.
3. What did Billy Joel have as the original title to 'Allentown'? Why?

1. How was the E Street band formed?
2. What awards and recognition have they achieved?
3. How did the nickname 'The Boss' originate?

1. As you listen to the song, concentrate on the drum solo towards the end of the song. Describe its sound.
2. What significance do the three cities that Springsteen mentions from Vietnam have?
3. What do you think Springsteen means by 'long gone daddy'?

1. What specifically is Springsteen mentioning about the problems Vietnam veterans encountered as they returned to America?
2. Why is 'Born in the U.S.A.' not a patriotic song?
3. What effect does the chorus have? Mention specifics.

1. How did the Dead Kennedys develop their hard core punk style?
2. What is the origination of the 'DK' logo?
3. What lawsuits are held against the band?

1. Discuss the effect of a song sung from the prospective of Governor Jerry Brown.
2. List specific examples of Brown's hippie/Zen Facist vision of America.
3. What is 'Now it's 1984' a reference to?

1. How is 'California Uber Alles' a song about liberalism?
2. Germany's National Anthem is 'Deutshland Uber Alles.' Can you make a connection with Jerry Brown's imagine regime and Hitler's reign over Nazi Germany? How?
3. List lines from the song that relate directly to sarcasm.

1. What international success has this hard rock-punk band received?
2. What is responsible for their rise to fame?
3. What setbacks did the band endure?

1. What is 'From Kintore East to Yuendemu,' a reference to?
2. Who sings the chorus of the song? Why is this appropriate?
3. What is the most glaring metaphor of the song? What does it mean?

1. What people does this song stick up for?
2. What other places in the world are suffering the same fate?
3. What affect did this song have for the threatened areas of the Australian environment?

1. What is Nena's given name?
2. Besides Germany, where else is Nena popular?
3. What happened to Nena after her band split up?

1. How did '99 Luftbaloons make a point about the brinkmanship and paranoia/hysteria surrounding the issue of war?
2. What lines from the song directly related to the dreams of the German people that were lost after World War II?
3. What actually is 'ange-MACHT!'?

1. What affect did this song have in Germany?
2. What are luftbaloons?
3. Why do you think this song was such a big hit in the United States?

1. How did Twisted Sister's videos make its mark on MTV?
2. What direction did the band take when Dee Snider joined the band?
3. What caused the decline and fall of the band?

1. What effect does the cartoonish violence featuring a young kid that turns into frontman Dee Snider, telling his father he's 'Not gonna take it!' have on the video?
2. What is the meaning of 'your life is trite and jaded
boring and confiscated.'?
3. This song was popular in the '80's. Would it be popular now in this era? Why/Why not?

1. What lines from the song make this a true song of rebellion?
2. According to a 1987 MTV surveys, this was part of the filthy 15 songs of the era. Why do you believe it received this tag?
3. Why would youth adopt this song as an anthem?

1. What are the musical style and influences of U2?
2. What other projects has U2 gained notoriety from as a result of Bono?
3. How can U2's musical style best be described?

1. How is 'Sunday Bloody Sunday a nonpartisan condemnation of the historic bloodshed in Ireland?
2. The vocal style is utterly visceral. How does this add to the emotional aspect of Bono's performance?
3. Who are the true victims mentioned in the song? Make a list, and then write your reasons.

1. There are two Bloody Sundays in Irish history. What are they, and why are they important?
2. Why did Bono introduce this at concerts by saying: 'This is not a rebel song.'?
3. What is the history of 'Bloody Sundays' throughout history? There are many bloody Sundays. Not just in Irish history but in the world's history. Think of every Sunday in every war ever fought. Wars do not stop for Sunday dispite the Christian (c'est moi) view of Sunday as a holy day. Consider Russia, America and Europe.

1. What is Don Henley's role in The Eagles?
2. What role did Henley play in saving Walden Woods?
3. What is Henley's view of corporate America?

1. What is Don Henley trying to portray about everyone’s self-gratification (dancing, partying)?
2. What does the line “ Nevermind the hear comin off the street” mean?
3. What actions does Don Henley point out that the government is doing?

1. What do you think Don Henley wanted people to start seeing in this world?
2. How does the song make you feel about your own actions to keep yourself happy and towards the actions you make to make the world a better place?
3. What are people’s main concerns in the world today?

1. What popularity did Sting gain with the group The Police?
2. List some of the highlights of Sting's success and The Grammy's.
3. What are Sting's musical influences?

1. What do you think Sting means by “children’s crusade”?
2. What loss is Sting talking about?
3. Describe some changes in our generation that Sting talks about in his lyrics.

1. Do you think kids have been able to bounce back up from their dark place in the world? How?
2. Describe ways we can help our generation appreciate things that display innocence.
3. How do you see our generation in the future? Would the world be a better place? Why?

1. What are Rush's musical beginnings with fame?
2. What award, of the many that they received, seems to be the most prestegious?
3. What legacy has Rush earned in their native Canada?

1. What is the main theme of this song?
2. How would thins song relate to someone who is part of dealing with political issues and someone who is dealing with everyday issues?
3. What do the revolving doors represent in the song?

1. What reference does Absalom Absalom have to do with the song?
2. What significance do the words obsolete and absolute have in the song?
3. Why do you think Rush is providing an 'Distant Early Warning'?

1. Define R.E.M.'s musical style.
2. How did R.E.M. achieve mainstream success?
3. How did the Green Tour lead to the band's demise?

1. What does R.E.M. want people to do in the lines “ To throw Thoreau and rearrange”?
2. Why do R.E.M. keep stressing people to “rearrange”?
3. How has the “wants” and “needs” of people been confused today?

1. What do you think this song makes people realize?
2. What do you believe would be “your finest hour”?
3. Why does Don Henley want people to listen to their instincts? How are instincts important?

1. What trademarks are Jon Bon Jovi known for?
2. Discuss Bon Jovi's acting success.
3. Choose any one of his quotes and discuss why you find it meaningful.

1. How do Tommy and Gina’s job in the song “Living on a Prayer” relate to their hardships?
2. Why do you think Bon Jovi named the song “Living on a Prayer”? How does this title relate to Tommy and Gina’s condition?
3. What was the direct message Bon Jovi was trying to say?

1. How do you think this song affected people’s views on their own tough lives?
2. Why is Bon Jovi stressing the importance of loving one another? How does that help you get through certain situations?
3. What do you think is the significance of “holding on to what you got”?

1. How did the Lilith Fair promote her music?
2. What traditional folk performers influenced her work?
3. How did Tom's Diner change her musical approach?

1. What is happening to “Luka” that Suzanne Vega wants you to understand?
2. What does the boy, Luka, believe he is doing wrong?
3. Why did Suzanne write “Just don’t ask me what it was”?

1. What did Suzanne Vega want to teach people when it came to “different” children?
2. How do you think this song makes people feel?
3. How can you spot out a different child to a child just like all the others?

1. What are Alabama's musical roots in both rock and country?
2. What was the zenith of Alabama's musical career?
3. When did Alabama's musical sucess decline?

1. What does the band want us to “pass on down”?
2. How would their kids have to “pay” for what their father’s did?
3. What specific examples does Alabama provide that deal specifically with the environment?

1. Do you think this song shows significant topics that involve the act to stop global warming today?
2. Kids of young America listen to pop, rock, and rap genres as oppose to country. What would be a good way to get kids to listen to the message and understand the purpose of the song?
3. Do you think America has helped our Earth enough to preserve it for our future generations? What are more ways we can help?

1. How was the 'Tears For Fears' name derived?
2. How did Roland and Curt meet and form their band?
3. MAke a list of the group's chart success.

1. What does Tears for Fears mean when they say “ sowing the seed”?
2. What makes us “fools to the rules of a government plans?”
3. What are Tears for Fears trying to teach people when they say “ Feel the pain, talk about it, shout about it, think about it, read about it, scream about it?”

1. What did people get encouraged to do to the “common man”?
2. What did Tears for Fears reveal to people when they said “ they look to the skies for some kind of divine intervention”?
3. What was the direct message of the entire song “Sowing the seeds of love”?

1. How was 'U.S.A for Africa' formed?
2. What big name performers rocked 'We Are The World'?
3. How many records were sold, and how much was raised?

1. What is the statement the chorus of “We Are the World” is trying to portray?
2. Why does Michael Jackson keep stressing that the world must be as one? What is the importance of this?
3. What do these artists think is the “greatest gift of all”? Why?

1. How do you think people reacted when they heard this song aired for the first time?
2. What could be the benefit of having a multi-artist song for this type of message trying to be sent?
3. What kinds of things are you encouraged to do or participate in when you listen to this song?

PROTEST MUSIC OF THE 1970's: Vietnam, Soul Music and Punk:

Use these links to answer the following questions.

1. Make a list of the heavy metal bands that AC/DC have been compared to.
2. Describe AC/DC's musical success in terms of record sales.
3. What international success has AC/DC achieved?

1. What message does this send considering the lyrics relating to school?
2. What images at the end of the song relate to murder?
3. What effect does the scream at the end of the song have?

1. Is this a song about a hit man or a song about the Watergate scandal?
2. What happened after Bon Scott's death?
3. What led to AC/DC's commercial decline?

1. Who surrounded Arlo Guthrie in his growing years that influenced his musical career?
2. How important was 'Alice's Restaurant' in Guthrie's career?+
3. How important is the Rising Son label to Guthrie?

1. Make a list of the lyrics that evokes the excitement and romance and adventure of travel.
2. What specific lines from the song makes you feel like you're actually on that train?
3. What does 'and the sons of Pullman porters, and the sons of engineers, ride their father's magic carpets made of steel' mean?

1. Why is it so important to write a protest song about the decomisioning of a train?
2. How are our railroads in America the backbone of America?
3. What qualities from the song make the sound 'haunting'?

1. Who is the famous front man of Black Sabbath?
2. Why was he fired?
3. What is Black Sabbath's claim to fame?

1. What lines speaks out against the horrors of war?
2. How does this song talk about the evils of war and how men go to war and die to make the rich richer and the Politicians who started the war are truly evil and greedy and they get judgement in the end for thier evil deeds?
3. Find the line about political leaders leaving the fighting to the poor. How is it true?

1. How is 'War Pigs' about man's desire to kill and destroy?
2. Is this song about the Vietnam war relevent today with our war in Iraq? How?
3. Interpret the line 'Satan laughing spreads his wings'.

1. How is Bob Marley a hero figure in Jamaica?
2. What does the Bob Marley Foundation help others?
3. What influence has the Marley family had on his legacy?

1. What effect does the repition of the opening lines have on the song?
2. What is a 'ism-skism game'?
3. What references to religion does Marley make? Why are they important to him?

1. This song is about taking action to avoid oppression. List specifics from the song to support your answer.
2. This song was influenced by Marley's upbringing in Jamaica where he had to fight for respect and acceptance for his Rastafarian religion. How is that relected in the song?
3. What other types of oppressions might this song be associated with?

1. Discuss Cat Stevens conversion to Islam.
2. How can you best describe Stevens' musical success?
3. What controversy surrounded him in his later career?

1. What positive aspects does Stevens sing about in the beginning of the song?
2. What actually is Stevens' 'peace train'?
3. As the song ends, Stevens is crying which is the opposite of the beginning. Why?

1. How did 'Peace Train' become a hippie anthem and often used by protesters to spread a message of peace?
2. The question whether world peace will ever be possible can only be answered by someone familiar with world history. To be familiar with world history means, however, to know human beings as they have been and always will be. There is a vast difference, which most people will never comprehend, between viewing future history as it will be and viewing it as one might like it to be. Peace is a desire, war is a fact; and history has never paid heed to human desires and ideals. How does Cat Stevens sing about this?
3. How does this song relate to John Lennon's 'Imagine'? List the similarities.

1. How did John Fogerty's musical career begin?
2. What songs are Creedence Clearwater Revival best known for?
3. Why did the group finally break up?

1. As you listen to the song, what effect does the repitition at the end have?
2. This song, like 'Born in the U.S.A.' is often confused as a patriotic anthem. What lines are in fact patriotic though?
3. What does 'Some folks inherit star spangled eyes' mean?

1. This could be a song of antiestablishment defiance and blue-collar pride, both anti-Washington and against the Vietnam war. Cite examples from the lyrics to defend this statement.
2. This song is not a protest against the Vietnam war, but rather a protest against the draft, and how 'Fortunate son's' got out of the draft. What line(s) support this.
3. Do we know from documentation of senators that had 'fortunate sons'?

1. How did David Crosby, Stepen Stills, Graham Nash and Neil Young unite to form the super group of the 70's?
2. Singularly, each performer could have had a successful musical career on their own. What are each best know for on their own?
3. Make a list of the groups that each member has played in, and then make connections where these performers have overlapped.

1. What are the most poignant images of the lyrics?
2. Listen to the song. What instrument is the most pronounced? Why?
3. What effect does the harmonizing have on the song?

1. This is about the events of May 4, 1970, when the US National Guard shot 4 unarmed students at Kent State University in Ohio. How has this viewed in history?
2. This became a protest anthem as Americans became fed up with the war in Vietnam. Why is this so?
3. Who ordered the national guard to react on the Kent State campus?

1. Define Starr's musical roots.
2. How did Charles Hatcher settle on his name?
3. Discuss the success of Starrs' 'War'.

1. What effect do the questions have in the song?
2. What about the answers?
3. What line(s) are the most powerful?

1. This is a protest song about the Vietnam war although it makes a broader statement of the need for harmony in our everyday lives. Find examples from the song to defend this statement.
2. 'War' is featured in the soundtrack for the game 'Battlefield Vietnam'. Why is this a good choice? Why not?
3. Even though this song is from the Vietnam are, does it fit for all wars? Why/Why not?

1. What is the musical history of the Five Man Electrical Band?
2. Who else has used their hit 'Signs'?
3. What groups have they influenced?

1. Who were the 'long-haired freaky people' of the 70's?
2. What are the 'signs' that they sing about?
3. What are the 'signs' of the 2000's?

1. The song is about the lower class being looked down upon and denied access to what the rich have in America. What lyrics support this?
2. Others say this song is about communism, pure and simple. It's against private property. Can you find lines to support this claim?
3. Still others claim this song shows how an individual must decide whether individuality of expression or conformity to societal standards is the preferred way to live. Find support for this.

1. How can you best describe Jimi Hendrix' innovative guitar style?
2. What are Hendrix' musical roots and influences?
3. Discuss Hendrix' tragic death.

1. As you listen to the video, what sounds of war does Hendrix create with his guitar?
2. What effect does playing his guitar with his teeth have?
3. What other part of the video has an effect on you?

1. At the Woodstock Music Festival, Jimi Hendrix delivered an historic performance, which featured his highly-regarded rendition of the 'Star Spangled Banner', a solo improvisation which became a defining moment of the 1960s. Why do you believe it received this acclaim?
2. His impressionistic rendition of the Star Spangled Banner has been described by some as anti-American mockery and by others a generation's statement on the unrest in U.S. society, oddly symbolic of the beauty, spontaneity, and tragedy endemic to Hendrix's life. What do you believe?
3. Is Hendrix's performance of the national anthem a political statement? Why/Why not?

1. How did John Lennon join The Beatles?
2. What difficulties did Lennon have with other members of The Beatles?
3. Discuss Lennon's tragic death.

1. What effect do the 'isms' of the first verse have? List them and comment.
2. What effect do the 'isters' of the second verse have? List them and comment.
3. What effect do the people of the last verse have? List them and comment.

1. This was recorded May 31, 1969 at a 'Bed-In' Lennon staged in room 1472 of Queen Elizabeth's Hotel in Montreal. John and Yoko stayed in bed for 8 days, beginning on May 26, in an effort to promote world peace. How did society view this 'demonstration'?
2. Make a list of all the other celebrities that 'visited' during the eight days.
3. What effect does the 'church choir' aspect have on the song?

1. How can Johnny Paycheck's singing and musical style be decribed as?
2. What is the origination of his name?
3. What is Paycheck's association with the Grand Ole Opry?

1. What line(s) makes you laugh?
2. As you listen to the song, what effect does the harmonica have?
3. Why is there a woman mentioned in the song?

1. This song is about the bitterness of a man who worked long and hard with no apparent reward. What else in life offers no rewards?
2. What commercial success did this song receive?
3. How else is this song being used in the media?

1. How did Marvin Gaye's association with the church help him in shaping his musical career?
2. What female stars did Gaye team with, and what were their chart topping hits?
3. Describe the unfortunate events of Marvin Gaye's death.

1. What message is Marvin Gaye trying to convey in his song?
2. What plea does Gaye make in the final stanza?
3. What effect does 'right on' have in the song?

1. Multiple surveys have claimed that 'What's Going On' is the #1 protest song of all time. Do you believe this? Why/Why not?
2. The themes of 'What's Going On' are timeless--war, poverty, drug addiction. Cite specific examples from the song for each.
3. 'What's Going On' is #4 in Rolling Stone's list of 500 greatest songs. What reason(s) do you believe it placed so high?

1. Who is Paul Revere of 'The Raiders'?
2. What influence did Mark Lindsay have on the group?
3. Why did the group disband?

1. The song is about the plight of the Cherokee Indians, who in 1791 were displaced from their home in Georgia to a reservation in Oklahoma. How is the last line prophetic?
2. As you listen to the overall effect, it is very dramatic, while seeming ominous and sad throughout the entire song. How can you describe it?
3. What line presents the best imagery?

1. What is the history of the Cherokee Nation as it applies to relocation?
2. What is the status of the Cherokee Nation now?
3. Where is the center of the Cherokee Nation presently?

1. How has Pink Floyd's psychedelic rock music left a legacy for themselves?
2. What success did 'Dark Side of the Moon' have in musical history?
3. How have each of the members of Pink Floyd enjoyed musical success on his own?

1. Why do you think children were used as the topic of discussion in this song?
2. Describe what you think the metaphor “another brick in the wall” stands for.
3. What message is Pink Floyd giving to listeners when the sounds of TV channels come in?

1. Why do you think children were used as the topic of discussion in this song?
2. Describe what you think the metaphor “another brick in the wall” stands for.
3. What message is Pink Floyd giving to listeners when the sounds of TV channels come in?

1. Discuss the musical evolution of The Rolling Stones.
2. How has Mick Jagger been able to achieve musical success for so long as well as keeping the group together as a touring act?
3. Name the top ten hits (in order) of The Rolling Stones.

1. This tells 2 stories, a young man shot by police in a case of mistaken identity, and a 10-year girl who dies in an alley of a drug overdose. Cite the lines from the song for each.
2. It may be true that the police are the 'Heartbreakers' since they killed the guy because of mistaken indentity. What do you think? Look for clues in the lyrics.
3. Mick Taylor plays the amazing guitar solo and wah-wah. What effect does it create for the mood (tone) of the song?

1. 'Heartbreaker' is a commentary on urban America. Why? How?
2. The lyrics are so simple. Which one line has the most effect on the song?
3. The horn section makes the song. Listen to the trumpet and sax and describe what you think the Stones were trying to convey with their use.

1. Define The Clash's punk rock style.
2. Who has The Clash influenced with their musical style?
3. What is Joe Strummer's contribution to The Clash?

1. The first verse is also commonly cited in support of the Nazi interpretation of the song, containing as it does references to Jews. What are the lines that make this reference?
2. Who are the blue-eyed men?
3. Who are the young believers?

1. Others believe that the lyrics are more broad in scope, reflecting the failures of capitalistic society. Choose lines from the song that defend this.
2. The song's closing refrain to highlight a capital economic system mindset and potential trap offers a warning to not give oneself over to 'the clampdown'. What lines suggest this?
3. As the song fades out, Joe Strummer sings the word 'work' five times and 'more work' twice. What effect do you think he was trying to create with this?

1. What are Tony Orlando's musical beginnings?
2. How was Dawn formed?
3. How did Orlando's musical talents land him a television program?

1. Even though this song creates an awareness, where in the lyrics do you find the protest connection?
2. How are hostages of war similar to prisoners in jail?
3. What does yellow represent in the song?

1. This song was also anthem for the returning Vietnam Vets. Why?
2. Amazing how one song can change our culture. At this moment there are 'yellow ribbons' in many places, remembering our soldiers in Iraq. When did the 'yellow ribbon' originate?
3. 'Tie a Yellow Ribbon' is based on the true story of a convict retuning from jail. How do you think it got connected to war?

PROTEST MUSIC OF THE 1960's: Civil Rights, Vietnam, Peace and Revoluti:

Use these links to answer the following questions.

1. Why did the band decide to call themselves 'The Animals'?
2. Why do some believe the band should not receive credit for the song 'House of the Rising Sun'?
3. What motivated the band to move to London in 1964?

1. As you listen to the song, what effecr do the fighting, gunfire, airplanes and bag pipes have?
2. What effect do the strings and trumpet section have?
3. What line directly leads us to believe this is a song about a military chaplain?

1. How are 'Sky Pilot' and 'Universal Soldier' by Donovan similar?
2. Can this song about the Vietnam war also be relevant to America's war in Iraq? WHy or why not?
3. What lines from the song have dual meanings?

1. What did McGuire do before he started singing folk music and playing guitar?
2. Describe how McGuire's first paid gig came about.
3. Why couldn't McGuire perform with other people at venues like the Hootenanny?

1. As you read the lyrics, which ones do you believe were responsible for its banning on U.S. radio stations?
2. What lines relate directly to anti-government?
3. What war is McGuire writing about?

1. Why do you believe this became a 'hippie anthem' of the Vietnam War?
2. Make a list of all the places mentioned and tell why they are important?
3. What actually is the eve of distruction?

1. What song was their 4th British number one ina year?
2. What 'mania' did The Beatles create?
3. What type of 'figureheads' did the group find themselves to be?

1. Why is chairman Mao mentioned?
2. Why is 'Don't you know it’s gonna be all right' repeated three times?
3. How does the guitar's scratchy sound affect the tone of the song?

1. Why is the word revolution mentioned only once in the song?
2. What lines directly relate to the Vietnam War?
3. What do the Beatles really want to 'change'?

1. What was Dylan's first inspiration to turn to folk music?
2. How did Dylan view rock-and-roll music?
3. How did Dylan meet Eliot? What tribute did he pay him?

1. How is 'Blowing in the Wind' a song about civil rights?
2. As you review 'Masters of War' and 'talking World War III Blues' which lines are true protest words?
3. As you listen to the song, what vocal quality does Dylan use to make this sound like a protest?

1. What lines from 'No more Auction Block for Me' relate to the slavery issue?
2. What legacy has Dylan left as a protest singer?
3. Who are today's Bob Dylan's in respect to the voice of protest?

1. What band did Young lead before becoming a mamber of Buffalo Springfield?
2. Where did the band get the idea for the name?
3. What legendary club did Buffalo Springfield become a house band for?

1. What lines from “For What It's Worth” relate to youth gatherings protesting anti-loitering laws?
2. What is the “sound” that the song speaks of?
3. Who is the “man” that will “come and take you away”?

1. What was the mood of the police force in 1968 as it relates to demonstrations?
2. Why is Paranoia a word used to describe the youth of the 60’s?
3. What was “going down” in the 60’s?

1. Who are the famous members of The Byrds?
2. What mark has The Byrds left on folk rock?
3. What mark has The Byrds left on country rock?

1. What lines are a plea for world peace?
2. What is meant by “To Everything There Is a Season”?
3. Listen and comment of the vocalization.

1. How does this song relate to Ecclesiastes 3, 1:8?
2. What line from the song does not come from the Bible?
3. What effect does repition have in the lyrics?

1. Where was Dion born, and what music from his birthplace opened the doors to songwriting?
2. Who first sparked Dion's singing ambitions?
3. With what group did Dion perform his first chart topper?

1. What does “walking up over the hill” symbolize?
2. What is the “good” that each was trying to find?
3. What is the most emotional line in the song?

1. Who is this song a tribute to?
2. What do all four have in common?
3. Why isn’t “Bobby” mentioned in the title?

1. How did Donovan's interest in folk music begin?
2. What British label did Donovan sing for, and with what producer did he then form a long collaboration with?
3. What legendary band did Donovan get a chance to collaborate with, and how did he influence them?

1. 'Universal Soldier' is about individual responsibility for war and how the old feudal thinking kills us all.' What lines convince you of this?
2. What other lines relate to protest?
3. Who actually is the 'Universal Soldier'?

1. How is “Universal Soldier” an individual responsibility for war?
2. How is” Universal Soldier” an anthem of the Vietnam Peace Movement?
3. What success did the song have in the music community?

1. What did the band originally call themselves?
2. Who took over their record productions? What word did they add to their name?
3. In the early 60's, what type of group was Hedgehoppers Anonymous considered to be?

1. As you review the lyrics, what controversial subject matter is mentioned?
2. How is 'It's Good News Week' used in a sarcastic way?
3. What is the purpose of the song?

1. What is the meaning of their name as it relates to the m ilitary?
2. Why were the original lyrics to their song changed?
3. Discuss the issues of famine and birth control as it was viewed in the mid 60's.

1. What Cincinnati based label did The Flames sign with?
2. Why was the group in danger of being dropped by their record label in 1956?
3. Describe how Little Richard played a significant role in Brown's life.

1. The song's call-and-response chorus is performed by a group of young children, who respond to Brown's command of 'Say it loud' with 'I'm black and I'm proud!' What effect does this have with children responding?
2. What lyrics state that Brown addresses the prejudice towards blacks in America?
3. What lines from the song state the need for black empowerment?

1. The song's call-and-response chorus is performed by a group of young children, who respond to Brown's command of 'Say it loud' with 'I'm black and I'm proud!' What effect does this have with children responding?
2. Why did Brown remove the song from his concerts calling it obsolete?
3.Why is 'Say it Loud- I'm Black and I'm Proud' a black power anthem?

1. What record label signed Janis Joplin, and what was the year?
2. What music festival helped acknowledge Big Brother and the Holding Company to the rest of the world?
3. What was the name of the album that went gold in 1968?

1. What message is Janis Joplin trying to convey in the song?
2. As you listen to the song, how does Joplin's voice carry the song?
3. Which lines from the song create the best imagery?

1. Why do you think the song came to mainstream attention when Janis Joplin and Big Brother and the Holding Company covered the song in 1968 on their album Cheap Thrills as it was never a big hit before?
2. The song is included among The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll. What place?
3. What other notable artist have covered this song?

1. What position did Nina Simone take to help support her family financially?
2. How did Simone get into the music business?
3. What label did Simone sing for in the late 50's? Name the three songs that later became standards in her repertoire?

1. 'Alabama's got me so upset, Tennessee's made me lose my rest, and everybody knows about Mississippi goddam.' What does she mean by this?
2. In the song she rails on the common argument at the time that civil rights activists and African Americans should 'go slow' and make changes in the United States incrementally: 'Keep on sayin' 'go slow' do things gradually would bring more tragedy. Why does she believe this?
3. What is the tone of the song?

1. The song is her response to the murder of Medgar Evers and the bombing of a church in Birmingham, Alabama, killing four black children. What is the history of this event?
2. Simone cynically announces the song as 'a show tune, but the show hasn't been written for it yet.' Why do you believe she is cynical?
3. She performed the song in front of 40,000 people at the end of one of the Selma to Montgomery marches when she and other black activists, including Sammy Davis Jr., James Baldwin and Harry Belafonte crossed police lines. What was the outcome of this rally?

1. Why do you think Ochs wants to be referred to as a 'topical singer'?
2. Where did Ochs perform many of his concerts as a choice?
3. Who were Ochs major influences?

1. List the Battles mentioned, and why are they significant?
2. What effect does killing have on the author?
3. Why isn’t the author “marchin’ anymore”?

1. How is “I Ain’t Marching Anymore” and anti-war anthem
2. What message does Ochs make about war?
3. How did Ochs do in his international travels?

1. Describe how Procol Harum developed symphonic rock.
2. What are Procol Harum's musical beginnings in England?
3. Who are the group's musical influences?

1. What is the “Whiter Shade of Pale”?
2. How is “As the Miller told his tale” a reference to “The Canterbury Tales”?
3. Is this a protest against drug use? Why or why not?

1. What are the vestal virgins mentioned?
2. What caused the virgin to turn “a whiter shade of pale”?
3. Is this a protest against drug use? Why or why not?

1. What are Steppenwolf's music roots?
2. What are Steppenwolf's signature songs?
3. What is the group's signature song?

1. As you listen to the song, what is the most identifiable sound?
2. Why is this song associated with motorcycles?
3. What lines represent freedom?

1. Why has “Born to Be Wild” been used in movies so much?
2. How do rebels use this song as an anthem to identify with?
3. What is the biker mentality?

PROTEST MUSIC PRIOR TO 1960: Labor, Struggles & Racial Discrimination:

Use these links to answer the following questions.

1. How did Holiday begin her so called 'apprenticeship'?
2. From what screen star did Holiday get her stage name Billie?
3. Why couldn't Holiday perform the song 'Strange Fruit'?

1. What lines relate directly to lynching?
2. Choose five images and detail each meaning.
3. Which line is the most powerful as it relates to lynchings?

1. The original title was 'Bitter Fruit.' Which one do you prefer? Defend your answer.
2. Why would Time Magazine call this song 'musical propaganda'?
3. Billy Holiday always played this song as an encore at her concerts. Why do you think she did this?

1. Who are the biggest musical influences in Joan Baez's career?
2. What is the theme of a majority of Baez's songs?
3. Compare Baez's early career with her later career? Which one has given her the most success? Why?

1. What lines from “We Shall Overcome” relate to the Civil Rights Movement?
2. The history of the song is traced back to the gospels of the Black churches. Which lines do you believe reflect this?
3. What other artist have been successful with this version?

1. “We Shall Overcome” was sung by striking tobacco workers in North Carolina. How does this song also relate to the Labor movement?
2. Why did “We Shall Overcome” become Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Civil Right’s anthem?
3. Who has had the most international success with this song?

1. What career field did Pete Seger orinially aspire to be in?
2. When he became unhappy with his two years at Harvard University, where did Seger land his next job?
3. Describe what happened on March 3, 1940. Who did he meet that would change his life?

1. What lines from “If I Had a Hammer” have the most meaning for the progressive movement?
2. What do the hammer, bell and song represent?
3. What lines from “Where Have All the Flowers Gone” show how war and suffering can be cyclical in nature?

1. What is “If I had a Hammer” a protest song of?
2. How is “Where Have All the Flowers Gone” a call for peace?
3. How is “Little Boxes” a song about uniformity, and sameness, known as “Cookie-Cutter” or “Tract “ houses?

1. List some of the highlights of Woody Guthrie's chilhood in Oklahoma.
2. What honors and awards have Guthrie accumulated throughout his musical history?
3. What is Woody Guthrie doing now?

1. What does Guthrie mean by “this land was made for you and me”?
2. Why do you think Guthrie repeats the chorus so much?
3. What lines express Guthrie’s belief that the working class should have the same rights as the rich?

1. How did this seemingly patriotic song turn into a hippie anthem?
2. Discuss how this song was originally titled “God Bless America.”
3. Why is this a parody of Irving Berlin’s “God Bless America”?

1. This being the oldest recognized protest piece, who is responsible for its creation?
2. What is a cutty wren, and what does it represent?
3. What does the cutty wren symbolize?

1. As you view the lyrics, which lines create the best imagery?
2. What affect does the repitition of names at the end of each line have?
3. What differences can you note about 'Cutty Wren #1' and 'Cutty Wren #2'?

1. What message do you take with you?
2. What impact does the song have in history?
3. Why did the English peasants revolt in 1381?

1. What is Lead Belly's real name and how did his musical name originate?
2. Discuss Lead Belly's prison years.
3. What is Lead Belly's musical legacy?

1. Reading the lyrics of “Bourgeois Blues”, what can you tell happened to the singer and his wife?
2. What do you think is the significance in Leadbelly explaining it’s a “bourgeois town”?
3. Why did Leadbelly write “Home of the brave, land of the free”?

1. “Bourgeois Blues” was written in 1938. How does this song reflect that decade in Washington, D.C.?
2. What actions do you think the African Americans took after hearing this song and relating to the message?
3. What kinds of establishments do you think Leadbelly and his wife were kicked out of?

1. Discuss James O's wrting career.
2. What distinctions has O earn as a poet?
3. How did O's educational background set him up as a writer?

1. Why do you think the women were protesting at their jobs for bread and roses?
2. In 1912, how do you think women were looked at compared to men at their jobs?
3. Although it was hard to find equal opportunity, what is the significance of the song saying “ we battle too for men”?

1. What kind of reputation do you think women earned after people heard “Bread and Roses”?
2. What kinds of unfair things were probably going on that gave women the need to protest?
3. Do you believe the message women were sending would affect you if you were their employer? Why?

1. Discuss Joe Hillstrom's early life and WWI activity.
2. Describe the events that led to Hill's execution by firing squad.
3. Detail the unsual events of Joe Hill's remains.

1. What are some contradicting lyrics in the song?
2. Describe who you think The Preacher and The Slave are in the song.
3. What is Hill asking the working men to unite for?

1. Do you think the song could relate to today’s political issues?
2. What social injustices followed after this song?
3. What made this song such a controversy during the era it was released in?

1. When was Bryan born?
2. What are Bryan's three most memorable songs?
3. When did Bryan die?

1. What war does this song speak of?
2. Why do you think Bryan used a mother figure in the song as oppose to a father figure?
3. Describe what you think Bryan is stating in the following lyrics: “What victory can bring her back all she cared to call her own?”

1. In the song, Bryan states that “there’d be no war today if mothers all would say ‘I didn’t raise my boy to be a soldier’.” Do you believe this to be true?
2. Do you think this song related to the debates in 1915 for need of military and economic preparations for war? What about for today’s arguments?
3. Give an example on how the topic of these lyrics can relate to the decision young men and women are given on joining the military.

Phase 3 - Reaching Consensus
You have all learned about different parts of PROTEST MUSIC. Now group members come back to the larger WebQuest team with expertise gained by searching from one perspective. You must all now complete the Task as a group. Each of you will bring a certain viewpoint to the answer: some of you will agree and others disagree. Use information, pictures, movies, facts, opinions, etc. from the web sites you explored to convince your teammates that your viewpoint is important and should be part of your team's response. Your WebQuest team should write out an answer that everyone on the team can live with.

I hope you've enjoyed the Sampler. If I've ommitted one of your favorites, try (just, try) finding it in one of my other volumes. I hope you now have a better understanding of the history of protest music as well as their meanings. I hope you've enjoyed the journey through time and have relived the sounds that defined (y)our age.

 created by Filamentality Content by Ralph A. Bucci,
Last revised Thu Jan 17 2:28:10 US/Pacific 2008